The Herzog August library in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, known also as Bibliotheca Augusta, was founded by Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1572. In the 17th century it was the largest library north of the Alps. The library was named for Duke Augustus (1579-1666). He built the collection, which was kept at Wolfenbüttel. Armies passed by, back and forth, over the centuries, but the collection was well protected. It was so highly regarded that generals placed the library under special protection, and the library is one of the oldest in the world to have never suffered loss to its collection.
In 2006 the library housed around 900,000 books, 350,000 of them were printed from the 15th to the 18th century. Of these, 3,500 are incunabula, 75,000 are from the sixteenth century, 150,000 are from the seventeenth century, and 120,000 are from the eighteenth century.